Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) represents about 10% of all lymphomas and distinct from other non- Hodgkin lymphomas, clinically by the contiguous spread of tumour along the lymphoid system, and morphologically by the presence of a spectrum of neoplastic cells. Factors associated with an increased risk for Hodgkin lymphoma include exposure to viral infections, familial factors, and immunosuppression. Most patients with Hodgkin lymphoma present with supradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy. An accurate determination of disease stage in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is vital to selection of the appropriate initial treatment. Positron emission tomography (PET) has recently emerged as an important tool for optimizing the staging of Hodgkin lymphoma. The factors determining the optimal treatment for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma that play a major role include the histologic features, the stage of the disease, the presence of clinical factors that suggest a poor prognosis, the presence of systemic symptoms, and the presence or absence of a bulky mass.