Inter: Ethnic comparison of canthal dimensions between ibibios and ijaws in Nigeria
Akpan U Ekanem, Kingsley A Okon, Balakumo E Kia, Kudighe P Udoh
Canthal index is an important component of craniofacial anthropometry with no universal normative value. It varies greatly among individuals and most especially across ethnic groups. This study was aimed at comparing the canthal index between the Ibibio and Ijaw populations of Nigeria. Four hundred (400) adult participants with ages ranging from 19-31 years were included in the study. Two hundred (200) participants consisting of 100 males and 100 females were randomly selected from the Ibibio and Ijaw ethnic groups of AkwaIbom and Bayelsa states, respectively, in Nigeria. A digital Vernier caliper was used to measure the inner and outer canthal distances and the canthal index was calculated from the values obtained. The results showed that Ibibio males and females had inner canthal distance of 3.49±0.05cm and 3.36±0.03cm; outer canthal distance of 10.34±0.22cm and 10.06±0.15cm, and mean canthal index of 33.77±0.83 and 33.42±0.54, respectively. The Ijaw males and females had inner canthal distance of 3.85±0.12cm and 3.69±0.16cm; outer canthal distance of 11.09±0.16cm and 10.92±0.42cm, and mean canthal index of 34.73±1.02 and 33.71±0.73, respectively. Using z-test (p<0.05), it was observed that the canthal index of the Ijaw males and females was significantly larger than that of the Ibibio males and females. Within the ethnic groups, sexual dimorphism was expressed for inner and outer canthal distances as well as the canthal index. The findings of this study will be of significance in physical anthropology and clinical medicine most especially in craniofacial surgery.